Leaving Cert French Comprehension Grammar Question Tips

 

Grammar questions are asked annually on the comprehension section of the exam. Here, you will be given a grammatical term to find in a section in the piece. Remember- do not give the “subject” with your term (the “I”, “he”, or “they”)- otherwise the answer will be incorrect.

Here are the most common terms:

 

L’infinitif: The whole verb- for example “aller”, “finir”,  “manger.”

Le futur simple: This will end with “ai”, “as”, “a”, “ons”, “ez”, “ent.” These endings will be placed at the end of the full verb.  Examples: “coutera” (this appeared in 2004) or “quittera” (this appeared in 2007), “nécessitera” (this appeared in 2016).

Un participe passé: The past participle of the verb. BE CAREFUL to only note the past participle and not the subject (the “I” or the “they”). For example- J’ai mangé– the participle passé here is “mangé.”

Examples from the 2006 paper are”renversées” and “brisées.”

Le conditionnel: Remember, the conditionnel is what you “would do.” These usually include the full verb and the endings are “ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient.” However, there are some irregular stems- for example “ferait” (from the verb “faire”).

Again- do not write down the subject (the “je”).  An example from the 2012 paper is “dirait.”

Le subjonctif: These follow certain terms with “que.” Remember- do not use the subject, just write the verb! An example from the 2008 paper is “devienne” and examples from the 2003 paper are “eut” and “nouât.”

Un adverbe: Adverbs end with “ment.” Examples from the 2008 paper are “seulement” and “brutalement.”

Une préposition: Common prepositions include “avec”, “sans”, “pour”, “après “, ” à.”

Examples from the 2011 paper are “dans” or ” à” or “de.”

Le participe présent: These end with “ant.” An example from the 2010 paper is “laissant” and the 2002 paper is “regardant.”

Un verbe pronominal: This is a reflexive verb and will have “se” or “s’” before the verb.  An example from the 2014 paper is “s’enfuir.”

L’impératif: This is an order- “fais tes devoirs!” (Do your homework !).  An example from the 2013 paper is « faites. »

Un adjectif: An adjective is a describing word.

Masculine singular adjectives won’t have anything added to the end of them. (“Petit).

Masculine plural adjectives will have “s” added to the end of them. (“Petits”).

Feminine singular adjectives will have “e” added to the end of them. (“Petite”). An example from the 2014 paper is “propre.”

Feminine plural adjectives will have “es” added to the end of them. (“Petites“). An example from the 2009 paper is “bonnes” or “noires.”

Un adjectif possessif: This means to state ownership- for example “mine” (“mon/ ma/ mes”), “his” (“son/ sa/ ses”) or “theirs” (“leur/leurs”). An example from the 2015 paper is “leur” or “leurs.” An example from the 2012 paper is “son.”

Le présent de l’indicatif: This is a fancy term for the present tense. Examples- “mange”, “va”.

Le passé composé: This is the regular past tense.  You will need to include the avoir/être  and the participle passé. Example: (“je”- don’t include this as it is the subject) “suis allé. “

Le plus-que-parfait:  This is asking for the être / avoir in imparfait form and the past participle. Remember- don’t include the subject!

Example: (“il”- don’t include this) avait donné.

L’imparfait: This is a form of past tense- for example j’étais. The endings are the same as the conditionnel- “ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient.” An example from the 2000 paper is “cherchait.”

Un adjective démonstratif: This means this/ these. These are “ce/ cet/ cette/ ces/. »

I hope this was helpful.

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